Chemistry of Bulk Precipitation at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1969 - present, Robert S. Pierce Ecosystem Laboratory Facility
Chemistry of Bulk Precipitation at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1969 - present, Robert S. Pierce Ecosystem Laboratory Facility
Gene E. Likens
Institute of Ecosystem Studies
2801 Sharon Turnpike
Millbrook, NY 12545

Phone: (845) 677-5343
Precipitation chemistry has been measured at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest since 1963. This data set includes volume-weighted, average, monthly concentrations of cations, anions, and pH. Monthly averages are calculated from samples collected at weekly intervals from HBEF Raingage 22 (RG-22), adjacent to the Robert S. Pierce Ecosystem Laboratory.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
aluminum, ammonium, calcium, chemistry, chloride, HBEF Watersheds, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, magnesium, nitrate, pH, phosphate, potassium, precipitation, rain, silica, sodium, sulfate, watershed.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance, inorganic nutrients.
HBEF Raingage 22 (RG-22). Meteorological instrument array area next to Robert S. Pierce Ecosystem Laboratory at HBEF (elev. 232m above MSL). Chemistry data from this site has the highest potential for local contamination because the collector is 20m from the paved road, parking lot, and buildings serving the USFS facilities at HBEF. Coordinates given correspond to RG-22.
West bounding coordinate: -71.701859
East bounding coordinate: -71.701859
North bounding coordinate: 43.943943
South bounding coordinate: 43.943943
Continuously-open, bulk collector (clean plastic funnel-bottle in summer; 21-liter plastic bucket in winter) mounted on a post approximately 2 m above land surface, within the fenced exclosure used for weather instruments. Samples are collected weekly, and all collection gear is acid-washed, de-ionized water-rinsed, and exchanged each week regardless of whether precipitation occurs or not. Measurements of pH are determined at HBEF, ion analyses conducted at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, NY.
Daily deposition values (in g/ha-mo) are derived by multiplying daily precipitation amounts (in mm) for RG-22, by the weekly concentrations of solutes in the bulk collector (in mg/L) for the same period. Daily values are summed to produce monthly deposition, and deposition divided by total monthly precipitation to produce volume-weighted, average monthly concentrations specific to this site.
  • Bormann, B.T., Wang, D., Bormann, F.H., Benoit, G., April, R., and Snyder, M.C. 1998. Rapid plant-induced weathering in an aggrading experimental ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 43:129-155.
  • Buso, D.C., Likens, G.E., and Eaton, J.S. 2000. Chemistry of precipitation, streamwater, and lakewater from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: a record of sampling protocols and analytical procedures. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-275. 52 pp.USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA.
  • Butler, T.J., Likens, G.E., Vermeylen, F.M., and Stunder, B.J.B. 2005. The impact of changing nitrogen oxide emissions on wet and dry nitrogen deposition in the northeastern USA. Atmospheric Environment 39:4851-4862.
  • Federer, C.A., Flynn, L.D., Martin, C.W., Hornbeck, J.W., and Pierce, R.S. 1990. Thirty years of hydrometeorologic data at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-141. 44 pp.USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA.
  • Fisher, D.W., Gambell, A.W., Likens, G.E., and Bormann, F.H. 1968. Atmospheric contributions to water quality of streams in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Water Resour. Res. 4(5):1115-1126.
  • Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Johnson, N.M., and Pierce, R.S. 1967. The calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium budgets for a small forested ecosystem.. Ecology 48(5):772-785.
  • Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Pierce, R.S., Eaton, J.S., and Johnson, N.M. 1977. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 146 pp.
  • Likens, G.E., Buso, D.C., and Butler, T.J. 2005. Long-term relationships between SO2 and NOX emissions and SO42- and NO3- concentration in bulk deposition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. J. Environ. Monitoring 7(10):964-968.
Data Access Guidelines for Streamwater Chemistry

We are happy to share these data on the chemistry of Hubbard Brook ecosystems. The public dissemination of these data that we have collected is a responsibility that we take very seriously. As stewards of these long-term data, our highest priorities are:

a. to maintain the integrity of these long-term data;

b. to allow adequate time for the analysis, quality assurance, and publication of results by principal investigators;

c. to acknowledge properly and responsibly the appropriate funding sources.

Therefore, it is HBES policy to make these streamwater data available on this web page two years after the date of collection. Also, in sharing these data with users like yourself, we ask that you adhere to the following guidelines as a matter of common courtesy and ethical responsibility:

1. Please inform us in advance of your interest and plans for use of these data (

2. The sources of funding used to collect these data must be acknowledged properly. We will provide the appropriate information when we learn what data are being used.

3. We would like to review any manuscripts that utilize extensive amounts (e.g. multiple years) of these data. If data use is extensive, or if these data have not been published previously, it may be appropriate for us to be included as authors on publication that are generated given the additional requirements from us for analysis and interpretation.

Data Use Policy

The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.


Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262

Phone: (603) 726-8902

Data file: rg22-pcp.txt
Description: Bulk precipitation chemistry at HBEF RG-22
Notes on Data: DATA DESCRIPTION: Volume-weighted, average, monthly concentration from bulk precipitation collectors. Data are used only to calculate deposition for the Mirror Lake watershed, and the area near the HBEF headquarters facility, but not for calculation of deposition at other HBEF sites. Base cations are available since 1969; ammonium, anions, phosphorus, and dissolved silica since 1971. Although occasional values are available since 1969, pHs were not determined on a routine, weekly basis for this specific site prior to 1972, so that no attempt has been made to calculate a monthly average before then. Aluminum was never analyzed for this site. From 1963 to 1969, precipitation data were compiled in combined files representing several collectors located throughout HBEF. After June 1969, bulk precipitation collections from RG-22 were recorded in this separate file. These data are physically stored at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Robert S. Pierce Ecosytem Laboratory, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, W. Thornton, NH.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1rgrain gage numbernoneynone
4preciptotal precipitation in mm/month (over any unit of area)millimeterPerMonthn
5Cacalcium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
6Mgmagnesium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
7Kpotassium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
8Nasodium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
9Altotal aluminum in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
10NH4ammonium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
12SO4sulfate concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
13NO3nitrate concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
14Clchloride concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
15PO4phosphate concentration in mg/L (soluble-reactive phosphate)milligramPerLitern
16SiO2silica concentration in mg/L (measured as silicate)milligramPerLitern


Variable: rg
the number of the rain gage is 22 throughout this dataset

Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken
Data missing or not taken