Last update: 2008-07-11 14:24:50

Gene E. Likens

Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Box AB, 2801 Sharon Turnpike
Millbrook, New York 12545
Telephone: 845-677-5343
FAX: 845-677-5976


Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Zoology, 1962;
M.S. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Zoology, 1959;
B.S. Manchester College, Biology, 1957.

Professional Positions:
  • President Emeritus, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, June 2007 - present
  • Distinguished Research Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, November 2004-present
  • G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair in Ecology, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, April 2000-2008;
  • President, Founding Director, Distinguished Senior Scientist,Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, 1993-2008;
  • Director, Institute of Ecosystem Studies and Mary Flagler Cary Arboretum, 1983-2008;
  • Vice President, The New York Botanical Garden, 1983-1993;
  • Associate Professor/Professor/ Chairman, Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, 1969-83; Charles A. Alexander Professor of Biological Sciences, 1983; Adjunct Professor of Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, 1983-present;
  • Professor of Biology, Yale University, March 1984-present;
  • Professor, Graduate Field of Ecology, Rutgers University, May 1985-present;
  • Assistant Professor/Associate Professor of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, 1963-69.

  • Research Interests and Activities:
    Gene E. Likens co-founded the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study in 1963. His long-term research at Hubbard Brook has focused on the biogeochemistry of forest and associated stream ecosystems, as well as the Mirror Lake ecosystem. Special research interests include air-land-water interactions, quantitative analysis of ecosystems, the nature and history of acid rain and the effect of air pollutants on ecosystems, the biology and behavior of salamanders, and experimental manipulation studies of entire ecosystems. Likens currently is on the Board of the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, Chairman of the Information Oversight Subcommittee, and a Co-Principal Investigator on the Long-Term Ecological Research Project, and Principal Investigator of the Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology Project. He is responsible for the collection, analysis and data management of the long-term data sets for precipitation chemistry, streamwater chemistry and lakewater chemistry of the HBES.

    Distinguished Awards and Memberships:
    2008 Black Rock Forest Consortium’s Dr. E. G. Stillman Award; 2006 Elected to American Philosophical Society; 2003 Blue Planet Prize for “outstanding scientific research achievements and help to solve global environmental problems” The Asahi Glass Foundation, Tokyo, Japan (with F.H. Bormann); 2001 National Medal of Science; 2001 – 2007 President, Societas Internationalis Limnologiae; 2003, Past President, 2002 President, 2001 President-Elect, American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS); 2000 AIBS Lifetime Accomplishment Award, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC; 1995 Eminent Ecologist, Ecological Society of America; , 1995 Naumann-Thienemann Medal, Societas Internationalis Limnologiae; 1994 The Australia Prize [for Science & Technology]; 1993 The Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement; 1990 AIBS Distinguished Service Award; 1988 International ECI Prize 1988 in Limnetic Ecology, The Ecology Institute; 1986 The New York Academy of Sciences Award for outstanding contributions to science, including its interaction with society; 1983 Regents Medal of Excellence, Bicentennial of Board of Regents and University of State of New York; 1982 First Recipient of the G. E. Hutchinson Medal for excellence in research, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography; 1980 U.S. Forest Service 75th Anniversary Award for significant contributions to forestry and conservation; 1972-73 Guggenheim Fellowship; 1969 American Motors Conservation Award; , 1979 elected to The American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 1981 National Academy of Sciences; [foreign member] 2000 Elected Exchange Fellow, Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1994 Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 1988 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; 1991 British Ecological Society [Honorary Member]; 1981 81 President of Ecological Society of America; 1976-77 President of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography.

    Selected Publications:

    Selected Books:

    Wetzel, R. G. and G. E. Likens. 2000. Limnological Analyses. Third Edition. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 429 pp.

    Likens, G. E. and F. H. Bormann. 1995. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Second Edition. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 159 pp.

    Likens, G. E. 1992. The Ecosystem Approach: Its Use and Abuse. Excellence in Ecology, Book 3. Ecology Institute, Oldendorf-Luhe, Germany. 166 pp.

    Likens, G. E. (ed.). 1985. An Ecosystem Approach to Aquatic Ecology: Mirror Lake and Its Environment. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 516 pp.

    Bormann, F. H. and G. E. Likens. 1979. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 253 pp.

    Selected Papers: Kelly, V. R., G. M. Lovett, K. C. Weathers, S.E.G. Findlay, D. L. Strayer, D. J. Burns and G. E. Likens. 2008. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: Legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:410-415.

    Butler, T. J., M. D. Cohen, F. M. Vermeylen, G. E. Likens, D. Schmeltz and R. S. Artz. 2008. Regional precipitation mercury trends in the eastern USA, 1998-2005: Declines in the Northeast and Midwest, but no change in the Southeast. Atmospheric Environment 42:1582-1592

    Warren, D. R., E. S. Bernhardt, R. O. Hall, Jr. and G. E. Likens. 2007. Forest age, wood and nutrient dynamics in headwater streams of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32:1154-1163.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, M. J. Mitchell, G. M. Lovett, S. W. Bailey, T. G. Siccama, W. A. Reiners and C. Alewell. 2002. The biogeochemistry of sulfur at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 60(3):235-316.

    Likens, G. E. 2001. Biogeochemistry, the watershed approach: some uses and limitations. In: Frontiers of Catchment Biogeochemistry. CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 52(1):5-12

    Butler, T. J., G. E. Likens and B.J.B. Stunder. 2001. Regional-scale impacts of Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments: The relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry. Atmospheric Environment 35(6):1015-1028.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, T. G. Siccama, C. E. Johnson, G. M. Lovett, T. J. Fahey, W. A. Reiners, D. F. Ryan, C. W. Martin and S. W. Bailey. 1998. The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 41(2):89-173.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll and D. C. Buso. 1996. Long-term effects of acid rain: response and recovery of a forest ecosystem. Science 272:244-246.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, T. G. Siccama, C. E. Johnson, D. F. Ryan, G. M. Lovett, T. J. Fahey & W. A. Reiners. 1994. The biogeochemistry of potassium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 25:61-125.

    Hedin, L.O., L. Granat, G. E. Likens, T. A. Buishand, J. N. Galloway, T. J. Butler & H. Rodhe. 1994. Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America. Nature 367:351-354.

    Driscoll, C. T., G. E. Likens, L. O. Hedin, J. S. Eaton & F. H. Bormann. 1989. Changes in the chemistry of surface waters: 25-yr results at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Environ. Sci. Tech. 23(2):137-143.

    Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, R. S. Pierce and W. A. Reiners. 1978. Recovery of a deforested ecosystem. Science 199(4328):492-496.

    Likens, G. E. and F. H. Bormann. 1974. Acid rain: a serious regional environmental problem. Science 184:1176-1179.

    Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann and N. M. Johnson. 1972. Acid rain. Environment 14(2):33-40.

    Co-Authors and Collaborators:
    Co-Authors and Collaborators [2003-2007]: Alewell, C. (Universität Bayreuth, Germany); Bailey, S.W. (USFS, Hubbard Brook); Blum, J.D. (U. MI, Ann Arbor); Bormann, F.H. (Yale); D. Buso (IES); Butler, T.J. (IES); Conley, D. (Lund U., Sweden); Cosentino, B. (Indianapolis); Craft, C. (Cornell U.); Cronan, C. (U. ME); Denny, E. (Yale); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse U.); Eagar, C. (USFS, Durham); Eviner, V. (IES); Fahey, T. (Cornell U.); Fallon Lambert, K. (HBRF); Fitzhugh, R.D. (U. IL, Champaign); Gilliland, A. (NOAA, Research Triangle Park); Girdler, E.B. (Kalamazoo College); Goodale, C. (Cornell U.); Groffman, P.M. (IES); Holmes, R.T. (Dartmouth College); Houlton, B. (Princeton U.); Howarth, R. (Cornell U.); Kahl, J.S. (Plymouth St. U.); Kaushal, S.S. (U. MD); Keene, W.C. (U. VA, Charlottesville); Lovett, G.M. (IES); McLauchlan, K. (Dartmouth); McPeek, M.A. (Dartmouth); Mitchell, M.J. (ESF SUNY Syracuse); Ollinger, S.V. (U. NH, Durham); Pace, M. (IES); Pardo, L. (USFS, Burlington, VT); Peckarsky, B.L. (Cornell U.); Peters, S.C. (U. MI, Ann Arbor); Power, M. (Stanford); Reiners, W.A. (U. WY, Laramie); Rosenberry, D.O. (USGS, Lakewood, CO); Rustad, L. (USFS, ME); Sherry, T. (Tulane U.); Siccama, T.G. (Yale); Stoddard, J. (EPA, Corvallis, OR); Strayer, D.L. (IES); Stunder, B.J.B. (NOAA, Silver Spring, MD); Sturrock, Jr., A.M. (deceased); Talbot, L. (George Mason U.); Tripler, C.E. (IES); van Breemen, N. (Wageningen U., The Netherlands); Vermeylen, F.M. (Cornell U.); Walter, M.T. (Cornell); Warren, D.R. (Cornell); Weber, E. (USFS, Burlington); Winter, T.C. (USGS, Lakewood, CO); Yanai, R.D. (SUNY ESF, Syracuse)

    Postdoctoral Associates:
    Bade, D. (Kent State U.); Berger, T.W. (U. für Bodenkultur, Vienna); Bukaveckas, P.A. (U. VA); Caraco, N. (IES); deNoyelles, F. (U. KS); Hall, Jr., R.O. (U. WY, Laramie); Hall, R.J. (Environment Canada); Havas, M. (Trent U.); Hedin, L. (Princeton U.); Hendrey, G. (Brookhaven National Lab); Galloway, J. (U. VA); Gosz, J. (U. NM); Jordan, M. (The Nature Conservancy); Judd, K. (Eastern Michigan U.); Lowe, W. (U. MT); Mattson, M. (U. MA); McCutchan, J. (CO State U.), Peterson, B. (Marine Biological Laboratory); Stelzer, R. (U. WI-Oshkosh), Tartowski, S. (AR State U.)

    Graduate Students:
    Baines, S. (U. WI); Basnet, K. (Kathmandu U.); Bennett, S. (Seattle, WA); Bernhardt, E. (Duke U.); Bilby, R. (NOAA, Seattle); Burton, T. (Michigan St. U.); Chisholm, S. (MIT); Christ, M. (U. WV); Cogbill, C. (Middlebury College); Cole, J. (IES); Cyr, H.(McGill U.); Fiance, S. (?); Fisher, S. (AR St. U.); Gerhart, D. (U. MN, Duluth); Hedin, L. (Princeton U.); Larison, J. (OR S. U.); Lewis, G. (Fuhrman St. U.); Macneale, K. H. (NOAA, Seattle); Makarewicz, J. (SUNY Brockport); Marino, R. (Cornell U.); Masza, D. (Brooklyn, NY); Mattson, M. (U. Massachusetts-Amherst); Mayer, M. (St. Lawrence U.); McDowell, W. (U. NH, Durham); Meyer, J. (U. GA); Moeller, R. (Lehigh U.); Nodvin, S. (Mt. Ida College, Nashua, NH); Ochs, C. (U. MS); Pulis, L. (Plymouth, MA); Sloane-Richey, J. (Seattle); Steinhart, G. (Cornell U.); Strayer, D. (IES); Tartowski, S. (AR State U.); Thornton, G. (Knoxville, TN); Walters, R. (Seattle, WA); Weathers, K. (IES)

    Graduate Advisor:
    Arthur D. Hasler

    Title at Hubbard Brook:
    Principal Investigator